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Cytokeratin: Areview on current concepts
Anoop Kumar, Nithya Jagannathan
January-June 2018, 2(1):6-11
Cytokeratins are proteins which form the intermediate filaments and form the major cytoskeleton of the epithelial cells. It has an enormous role in providing mechanical support to the cell. There are various kinds of cytokeratins each showing varied expression in the epithelium. The cytokeratins can be broadly classified into typeI or acidic and typeII or basic proteins. The expression of these plays a role in differentiating different types of epithelial cells, thus enabling us to classify tumors. They help in diagnosing different types of tumors and thus have a vital role in diagnostic pathology.
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Role of periostin in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A systematic review
Sandhya Sundar, Pratibha Ramani, Herald J Sherlin, Gifrina Jayaraj
July-December 2018, 2(2):35-40
Background: Like any other cancer, tumor microenvironment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is closely connected to every step of its tumorigenesis. Periostin is a unique multifunctional extracellular matrix protein found to be overexpressed in various types of human cancers. Objective: The objective of this systematic review is to critically analyze various studies in literature that have reported the expression of emerging novel tumor marker “PERIOSTIN” and to determine its role in OSCC. Materials and Methods: Articles on periostin in relation to OSCC were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and a thorough Google search was done. Hand search of Journals was also performed. Of nine potentially relevant articles, four were excluded on the grounds of exclusion criteria, and one was excluded being a review article. However, one article was included by internet search and hand search. Of the total of five relevant articles reviewed, the resulting data were collected and tabulated. Results: All the five studies reviewed demonstrated an upregulation of periostin in OSCC. Among the five, two studies showed a positive correlation of periostin with the invasive patterns of OSCC. Two of the studies correlated the expression of periostin with angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Four of the five articles reviewed, showed a significant correlation of periostin expression with metastasis of OSCC. Conclusion: The inference drawn from this systematic review is that the periostin plays an important role in tumor progression including invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of OSCC raising the possibility that it could be used as a molecular target in the therapy of OSCC patients.
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Osteosarcoma of jaws: An insight into literature
Fatema Saify, Shilpa Jain
July-December 2018, 2(2):41-46
Osteosarcoma (OS), referred to as osteogenic sarcoma, is the most common primary malignant bone tumor excluding plasma cell tumors. It accounts for approximately 15% of all primary bone tumors confirmed at biopsy. It commonly involves the appendicular skeleton. Like, its counterpart in the long bones, OS affecting the head-and-neck region shows the distinct yet diverse clinical, histologic, and prognostic characteristics. Its diagnosis is a challenge to oral pathologists and is especially important in early stages to improve its prognosis. The data have been taken from the published articles and standard books and are summarized. In this review, in addition to summarizing the current understanding of OS etiology and diagnostic methods, various experimental therapeutics have been described that provides evidence to encourage a potential paradigm shift toward the introduction of immunomodulation, which may offer a more comprehensive approach to battling cancer.
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